PreK-12 Engineering
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Boldface type indicates core standards for full-year courses.

Broad Concept: Engineering design involves practical problem solving, research, development, and invention and requires designing, drawing, building, testing, and redesigning.

1.1 - Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process (e.g. identify the problem, research the problem, develop possible solutions, select the best possible solution(s), construct a prototype, test and evaluate, communicate the solution(s), and redesign).
1.2 - Demonstrate knowledge of pictorial and multi-view drawings (e.g. orthographic projection, isometric, oblique, perspective) using proper techniques.
1.3 - Demonstrate the use of drafting techniques with paper and pencil or computer-aided design (CAD) systems when available.
1.4 - Apply scale and proportion to drawings (e.g. 1/4" = 1'0").
1.5 - Interpret plans, diagrams, and working drawings in the construction of a prototype.

Broad Concept: Various materials, processes, and systems are used to build structures.

2.1 - Distinguish among tension, compression, shear, and torsion and explain how they relate to the selection of materials in structures.
2.2 - Identify and explain the purposes of common tools and measurement devices used in construction, (e.g. spirit level, transit, framing square, plumb bob, spring scale, tape measure, strain gauge, venturi meter, pitot tube).
2.3 - Describe how structures are constructed using a variety of processes and procedures (e.g. welds, bolts, and rivets are used to assemble metal framing materials).
2.4 - Identify and explain the engineering properties of materials used in structures (e.g. elasticity, plasticity, thermal conductivity, density).
2.5 - Differentiate the factors that affect the design and building of structures, such as zoning laws, building codes, and professional standards.
2.6 - Calculate quantitatively the resultant forces for live loads and dead loads.

Broad Concept: Fluid systems are made up of liquids or gases and allow force to be transferred from one location to another. They also provide water, gas, and oil, and remove waste. They can be moving or stationary and have associated pressures and velocities.

3.1 - Differentiate between open (e.g. irrigation, forced hot air system) and closed (e.g. forced hot water system, hydroponics) fluid systems and their components such as valves, controlling devices, and metering devices.
3.2 - Identify and explain sources of resistance (e.g. 45° elbow, 90° elbow, type of pipes, changes in diameter) for water moving through a pipe.
3.3 - Explain Bernoulli's Principle and it's effect on practical application (e.g. airfoil design, spoiler design, carburetor).
3.4 - Differentiate between hydraulic and pneumatic systems and provide examples of appropriate applications of each as they relate to manufacturing and transportation systems.
3.5 - Explain the relationship between velocity and cross sectional areas in the movement of a fluid.
3.6 - Solve problems related to hydrostatic pressure and depth in fluid systems.

Broad Concept: Thermal systems involve transfer of energy through conduction, convection and radiation and are used to control the environment.

4.1 - Differentiate among conduction, convection, and radiation in a thermal system (e.g. heating and cooling a house, cooking).
4.2 - Give examples of how conduction, convection, and radiation are used in the selection of materials (e.g. home and vehicle thermostat designs, circuit breakers).
4.3 - Identify the differences between open and closed thermal systems (e.g. humidity control systems, heating systems, cooling systems).
4.4 - Explain how environmental conditions influence heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles.
4.5 - Identify and explain the tools, controls, and properties of materials used in a thermal system (e.g. thermostats, R Values, thermal conductivity, temperature sensors).

Broad Concept: Electrical systems generate, transfer and distribute electricity.

5.1 - Describe the different instruments that can be used to measure voltage (e.g. voltmeter, multimeter).
5.2 - Identify and explain the components of a circuit including a source, conductor, load and controllers (controllers are switches, relays, diodes, transistors, integrated circuits).
5.3 - Explain the relationship between resistance, voltage, and current (Ohm's Law).
5.4 - Determine the voltages and currents in a series circuit and a parallel circuit.
5.5 - Explain how to measure voltage, resistance, and current in electrical systems.
5.6 - Describe the differences between Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC).

Broad Concept: The application of technical processes to exchange information includes symbols, measurements, icons, and graphic images.

6.1 - Identify and explain the applications of light in communications (e.g. reflection, refraction, additive and subtractive color theory).
6.2 - Explain how information travels through different media (e.g. electrical wire, optical fiber, air, space).
6.3 - Compare the difference between digital and analog communication devices.
6.4 - Explain the components of a communication system (e.g. source, encoder, transmitter, receiver, decoder, storage, retrieval, and destination).
6.5 - Identify and explain the applications of laser and fiber optic technology (e.g. telephone systems, cable television, medical technology, and photography).

Broad Concept: Manufacturing processes can be classified into six groups: casting and molding,
forming, separating, conditioning, assembling, and finishing.

7.1 - Explain the manufacturing processes of casting and molding, forming, separating, conditioning, assembling, and finishing.
7.2 - Differentiate the selection of tools and procedures used in the safe production of products in the manufacturing process (e.g. hand tools, power tools, computer-aided manufacturing, three-dimensional modeling).
7.3 - Explain the process and the programming of robotic action utilizing three axes.

The information on this page is taken from Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework:
For Teacher Working Groups' Review, February 7, 2001.
Please check the Massachusetts Department of Education site for updates.
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